Properties of Steel For Design and Construction

By superadmin on January 14, 2021 in Blog

The designs and construction applications of steel depend on the properties of steel structures. There are several categories used to classify steel. Some categories are more appropriate for use in certain situations than others. A unique combination of material properties is what makes certain types of steel appropriate or otherwise for use in different construction projects. Steel can be classified by six properties:

  • Tensile properties
  • Shear properties
  • Hardness
  • Creep
  • Relaxation
  • Fatigue

Tensile Properties of Steel

There are different types of steel structures which can be used in the construction of steel buildings. The tensile property of steel determines how much stress it will experience when subject to a strain. Up to a certain strain (steel elastic limit), steel deformation is not permanent and the steel will regain its original shape after a load is removed. After this limit, steel is still flexible but will retain a deformed shape. Residual stress is a stress that stays in a steel element after it has been fabricated.

If a steel structure needs to handle dynamic loads, then a high strain rate would be required. However, a normal strain rate is used when steel is needed to construct structures designed for static loads.

Shear Properties of Steel

The shear strength of steel is the strength of the material against any type of structural failure classified by a material failing in shear. Shear failure is caused by movement of sufficient magnitude to destroy or seriously endanger a structure. In other words, shear strength is the strength of a building up until its breaking point. Steel structures bearing dynamic loads will need steel of a high shear strength. Static load bearing steel structures may be constructed with steel bearing a normal shear strength.

The Hardness Property of Steel

Hardness is the ability of steel to withstand inelastic deformation, in other words, blunt trauma. Evaluating hardness can also include calculations to measure the tensile strength of steel; the two properties are related.

The Creep Property of Steel

Creep is the gradual variation of strain of a steel component under constant stress. It manifests due to the presence of consistent pressure or fire. The creep property is relatively unimportant when building steel structures, except those that must withstand the effects of fire.

Relaxation Property of Steel

Relaxation is the incremental reduction of structural steel under constant stress.

Fatigue of Structural Steel

Fatigue is the failure of a steel structure due to the initiation of cracks. As cracks develop under the influence of regular loading, fatigue increases.

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